His main field of research is manufacturing; his research outcomes are published in journals including the Proceedings of The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Proceedings of the Royal Society, the Journal of the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications, and, latterly, in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. McGeough's books include “Principles of Electrochemical Machining” (1974), “Advanced Methods of Machining” (1988), “Micromachining of Engineering Materials” (editor, 2001) and “The Engineering of Human Joint Replacements (2013). He is the author of the entry on "Electroforming" for the Encyclopaedia of Production Engineering (2013), and a volume editor for “Comprehensive Materials Processing" (2014). The IMechE and the Society for Underwater Technology have awarded him prizes for his researches. He held a Royal Society/SERC (now EPSRC) Industrial Fellowship between 1987–89, and has been the director of three spin-off companies.
McGeough is a Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the International Academy for Production Engineering, and the Royal Academy of Engineering. He is a member of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. He has served as vice-president of the IMechE and chair of its Professional Publishing Board, and of its International Strategy Board. He has held visiting appointments at the University of Naples ”Federico 2”, Monash University, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, and Dublin City University. He is an Honorary Professor of Nanjing Aeronautical and Astronautical University.